IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) Departure Procedures – Video Transcript
Today, we’re going to be learning about departure procedures. There are 3 different departure procedures. Standard instrument departures, obstacle departures, and then diverse vector area departures. So today here in the sim, we’re going to practice the deer valley one departure. Let’s get cleared for takeoff. Airspeed alive, engine instruments green, rotate. (Plane takes off in simulator)
Types of Departure Procedures
Alright guys, welcome back. So as mentioned, we’re going to be talking about the three different departure procedures that you can get on your IFR clearance on your next flight. The first one we’ll talk about is we’re going to go over to the SID, Standard Instrument Departure procedures. SIDs are designed to get your airplane to the enroute phase of the flight safely, and also reduce pilot and ATC workloads. Now you can either accept or reject a SID whether or not you want to fly it.
The next one we’re going to talk about is Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP). Obstacle Departure Procedures get your airplane to the enroute phase of the flight over terrain in a safe manner. Here at Deer Valley, I like the fly the Deer Valley One departure.
The next one is Diverse Vector Area. Diverse Vector Area is assigned headings given by ATC on departure. So let’s say, for example, we’re going to take off from we to five left here do your Valley ATC says on departure turn right heading 340. So we’re going to after we depart take off turn right heading 340 maintain that out maintain that heading until ATC tell something else.
Now let’s go a little bit deeper into obstacle departure procedures. So pull out your foreflights and pull up the deer valley one departure procedure.
ODP – Obstacle Departure Procedures
Welcome back. I hope you pulled out your foreflight and pulled up the Deer Valley one obstacle departure procedure because you’re going to need to follow along with this one. This is a very popular practice obstacle departure that we like to do here at Deer Valley. Depending upon your airport, they might also have another obstacle departure procedure but in general let’s just look at the Deer Valley one departure today. So again we talked about Deer Valley one obstacle departure gets us from the airport to the enroute phase of flight safely. There’s a couple things that we need to be aware of. First one is if you do not get your obstacle departure clearance in your IFR clearance, you can fly this one. According to the AIM 5 – 2 – 9, you do not have to have an obstacle departure procedure assign your clearance in order to fly it. If it’s at the airport that you’re departing from, you can fly it on your own without a clearance on an IFR flight plan.
The next thing that I want to cover is takeoff minimums. Takeoff minimums are very important because we need to be able to meet certain climb gradients or visibility requirements in order to legally fly obstacle departure procedures. So let’s say the scenario is we’re going to take off runway 2 5 left on the Deer Valley One. So if you go to takeoff minimums it says standard with a minimum climb of 451 feet per nautical mile to 2800. Okay stop there for a second.
What is standard? Standard means it’s couple different things. It depends on what kind of rules you’re operating under. So we have part 91 and then part 121 / 135. So during our training flights we’re operating on part 91 so standard for part 91, you can take off in zero zero visibility. Is that safe? Probably not. Now if you are flying for an airline maybe SkyWest or part 135 charter operations standard means a couple different things. So if you have one to two engines, the standard visibility is one statute mile. Now let’s say you have three or more engines, three to four engines on your airplane, standard means one-half statute mile visibility. It’s important when you’re pre flying yourself or your IFR flight to take a look at the weather. Take a look at the METAR, look at the TAF.
Alright, so now let’s dive into the 451 feet per nautical mile to two thousand eight hundred now what the heck is feet per nautical mile? Why can’t it just be feet per minute? Well I want you to go to the terminal procedures I’m going to teach you how to convert from feet per nautical mile to feet per minute. Make sure you pulled out your terminal procedures in your foreflight. If you turn to page 19 in the terminal procedures in foreflight. It’s going to have a climb/descent table. This is lots of numbers, looks complex, but it’s pretty easy. I’ll teach you how to use it. So again, we have four hundred and fifty one feet per nautical mile to two thousand eight hundred. We need to convert from feet per nautical mile to feet per minute. So as you’ve calculated your claw, your top of climb, your ground speed, what you’re going to do is you’re going to start with your feet per nautical mile. So we find 451 we’re going to have to s to guesstimate between 425 and 480 you take those two numbers and divide by 2 then you’re going to go over to the ground speed. Let’s say your ground speed today is 90. So we’re going to go between 425 480 over to where 90 knots goes down to so it’s between 640 and 715 so we’re going to take those two numbers add them together and divide by two to guesstimate. With that number we now have our feet per minute. So if we’re able to meet that feet per minute based on their climb performance with density altitude pressure altitude the current time of your flight we can then calculate an estimate that we can legally fly the deer valley one departure if we’re able to meet the feet per minute after converting from feet per nautical mile to feet per minute.
Now there’s a way out, there’s a way out. If you go back to the deer valley one departure, let’s say it’s a really hot day. You’re not able to meet the climb gradient. Then see how it’s used hot hi. So if you continue reading in the takeout minimums for only two five left at the end after two thousand eight hundred it says OR a 1500 foot ceiling and three statute mile visibility for climb and visual conditions. So that’s your excuse, that’s your way out if you’re not able to meet the climb grade based upon the feet per minute and feet per nautical mile conversion. So that’s why it’s really important when you are pre flying yourself for your flight to check the performance of the airplane based on the current conditions. Here in Deer Valley it’s pretty clear most of the year so it’s always good to check the ATIS, check the METAR before you get going, but that’s why we have that’s why they also have the excuse of that 1500 foot ceiling in three statute miles because you can climb around the mountains, the terrain here deer valley individual conditions instead of taking off into the clouds not knowing where those mountains are and accidentally hitting them.
Alright guys thanks again for joining us on a presentation about departure procedures I encourage you to get with your instructor and study more about departure procedures in the a-15 def 2009 there’s a lot more information about that in there that we didn’t cover today but you can study that’s my challenge for you.